Nepal is a small country but many Ideals have played a vitul role to make Nepal to a Present Nepal. Some of the persons have given their life, some have spend their hole life for it. Some of the major ideals life history and things done for Nepal is writen below.
The great king prithivi narayan shah
Prithvi narayan shah was born in 27 poush 1779 B.s His father was Narbhupal shah and mother was Kaukshalya vati. King Narbhupal shah have four queens, he had done four marriages. The first queen chandraprabhavati devi did not got any children. Second queen kaushalya vati had 3 children their name were prithivi narayan shah,dalmardan shah, prithivi pati shah. The first queen did not have any children so she had adopted prithivinarayan shah. And she took all the necessitity care of prithivinarayan shah. First married of prithivinarayan shah was done with Indrakumari; she was the daughter of king Hemkarn sen princess of makwanpur. unfortunately the married was not successful because pritihvinarayan shah has demanded one elephant with one teeth whose cost was nine lakh and he wants to take his wife with him at married time but Indrakumari father rejected all the demand due this prithivinarayan shah was felling insulted so in same year he had done another marriage with Narendra laxmi daughter of Ahimansingh princess of banaras (India). In 1799 B.S. Prithvi narayan shah father got death at that time prithivinarayan shah was only 20 years old. And he becomes the king of gorkha. When prithivi narayan shs become the king at that time Nepal was not single country it was divided into 52 states at that time kathmandu have 3 states and due to this they all were quarreling everytime. Due to this situation king prithivi narayan shah decided that he will make on single powerful state.
Soon after he ascended the throne of Gorkha, Shah tricked his way into the royal household of Bhaktapur for a number of months. He lusted over the rich agricultural soil of the valley, and envied the strategic point of Kathmandu valley as a transit point for expanding trade with both Tibet and India. Then he planned the conquest of the valley. To this end, he decided to first capture Nuwakot, which belonged to the state of Kantipur, as a strategic point. He also foresaw that taking over Nuwakot would significantly strengthen the position of his Gorkha nation and weaken the states occupying the Kathmandu Valley. Nuwakot held strategic importance, as there was already a fort there, and it had remained as a connecting pass the valley and Tibet.
Unification Of Nepal
Nepal's recorded history began with the Kiratis, who arrived in the 7th or 8th century BCE from the east to Kathmandu valley. Little is known about them, other than their deftness as sheep farmers and fondness for carrying long knives. The Kirats ruled for about 1225 years (800 BCE-300 CE), their reign had a total of 28 kings during that time. Their first and best remembered king was Yalamba Haang, who finds a reference in the epic Mahabharata.
The first record of the word Nepal is found in ancient Indian annals such as the puranas from the 4th century A.D where an area known as 'Newal' or sometimes as 'Newar' is mentioned, referring to what is now known as the Kathmandu Valley. However, the area of the sovereign state of Nepal has changed from time to time during its history, expanding and shrinking in area since ancient times.
Of the kings originating inside or outside of modern Nepal, a common characteristic of attempting to unify Nepal from mostly west to east, along the southern track of the Himalayas and the northern plain of Ganga, can be identified. No Nepalese ruler has been recorded attempting to cross the Himalayas to expand their states intoTibet or China, and none has been recorded trying to cross the Ganga plain into modern India. For the most part, Nepalese rulers seem to have been focused on the territories that more or less comprise modern-day Nepal, between the region of Kashmir in the west and Bhutan in the east.
Nepal as a political region has been united by different kings of different kingdoms at various times in Nepalese history. Common tradition holds that among the first uniters of Nepal was a king by the name of Mandev, who ultimately controlled territory from the Brahmaputra River in the east and Gandaki in the west. Recorded details of his unification, however, are scarce, and thus Mandev's actions and his very existence cannot be definitively confirmed. The same may be said for various early recorded and traditional (i.e. not necessarily recorded) rulers of Nepal, all of whose kingdoms apparently broke up when their dynasties died out. While records and documents of several such rulers do exist, a lack of interest has made their accessibility difficult and limited the number of translations and analyses.
Nuwakot (1744 AD)
One year after becoming King, in 1744 AD, Prithvi Narayan Shah attacked Nuwakot but was repelled because the Gorkha army was not well equipped. In addition, conflicts of interest between the Pandeys and Basnets - two important courtier clans in the Gorkha palace - arose to add domestic political tension. Shah then made Kalu Pandey the "Mul Kaji (equivalent to Prime Minister)" of his state and thus strengthened his domestic political position. Almost a year later, on 2 October 1744, he attacked Nuwakot again and won, thus expanding the bounds of his Gorkha state.
Assaults on Kirtipur
Prithvi Narayan Shah employed a strategy involving a blockade of the Kathmandu Valley, and subsequently took over the surrounding settlements and strategic positions around the valley. In the next two years (during 1745-46) he captured Mahadevpokhari, Pharping, Chitlang, Dharmasthali, Naldrum, Siranchok and Shivapuri. He then focused his attention on Kirtipur and Makawanpur, two palaces which were also strategic military targets. Kirtipur was in an elevated position with a fort surrounded by walls and jungles, an ideal place to make inroads into the valley. Shah thought that if he could take over Kirtipur, occupying the rest of the valley would be much easier. On 4 December 1757 he made his first attack on Kirtipur. Prithvi Narayan Shah himself was nearly killed in the battle. As a result, the Gorkha army, having lost a great deal of moral, was defeated.
But greed took over Prithvi Narayan Shah soon. He did not care for the welfare of his soldiers. He was interested only in the capture of more lands, whatever the cost. The Gorkha army was repelled again in August 1764.
After two defeats, the Gorkha army changed its strategy again and surrounded Kirtipur during the harvest season, effectively laying siege to the stronghold. The Gorkha army also took over the nearby Balaju fort. After several months of this blockade, the people of Kirtipur could not even get water to drink and were forced to surrender to the Gorkha army on 17 March 1766. This time the Gorkha army took over Kirtipur without a fight. It is said that as revenge for his two earlier defeats, Prithvi Narayan Shah had his army cut off the noses and lips of many people of Kirtipur.
Conquest of Southern Nepal and conquest of Kathmandu Valley
As Nuwakot was a key point for Kathmandu’s trade with Tibet, Makawanpur in the south was equally important for trade with India. While the battle to surround Kathmandu was going on in the north, the Gorkha army, captured Sindhulikot, Timilakot and Hariharpur in the south and southeast of modern-day Nepal before it entered into the Makawanpurgadhi territories. Makawanpur was captured after only 10 hours of battle in August 1762. In 1763 AD, the Gorkha army conquered seven other villages, including Dhulikhel and Banepa, and expanded the Gorkha state's border line further north. With this, the Kathmandu Valley was completely surrounded and blockaded. After all the four passes (Sanga, Baad, pati and Chandragiri Bhanjyang, also known as Char Bhanjyang) of the Kathmandu Valley were controlled by Prithvi Narayan Shah, the eventual lack of salt, oil, spices, and even clothes led to turmoil in the valley and disaster struck Kathmandu. When the local government failed to pay its soldiers, the morale or its military dwindled.
The king of Kathmandu at the time, Jaya Prakash Malla, then asked for military aid from the British in British India. In August 1767, when the forces of the British India arrived in Sindhuligadhi, the Gorkha military conducted guerrilla attacks against them. Many of the British Indian forces were killed and the rest eventually fled, leaving behind a huge amount of weapons and ammunitions, which were seized by the Gorkha army.
This boosted the morale of the forces of Prithvi Narayan Shah and further demoralized the kings of the Kathmandu Valley, among which was the king of Kantipur. In addition to this, the political situation of the valley, political wrangling inside the palace, and personal enmity had rendered the people of Kantipur very weak because Jaya Prakash Malla, the king of Kantipur, was of a paranoid nature, and his own brother and courtiers became dissatisfied with him. The state of Lalitpur had also faced chaos after the death of its king Yogendra Malla. Six pradhans (courtiers) then took power into their own hands, and put Tej Narsingh Malla on the throne; but the actual power in Lalitpur remained with the pradhans. In Bhaktapur as well, the palace of King Ranjeet Malla was in disarray due to domestic political wrangling. When Ranjeet Malla wanted to declare his two year-old son as his heir, a queen (not through marriage) opposed it. This forced the king to declare his older illegitimate son as his heir to the throne. This only fueled conflict in the palace, as a result of which the palace was weakened further.
While the three kingdoms of the Kathmandu Valley were engaged in clashes and enmity, Prithvi Narayan Shah used this opportunity to impose an economic blockade against the entire valley region. He closed the trade route to Tibet, which passed through Nuwakot. The Gorkha army, marched into the valley. On 25 September 1768, when the people of Kathmandu were celebrating the Festival of Indrajatra, Prithvi Narayan Shah won an easy victory over Kantipur.
Some historians doubt this version of the history written by the conquerors. They say that the valley was overtaken not on September but on cold December. The official version of overwhelmingly large force that captured Kathmandu is considered historically inaccurate. The truth, however, is that the powerful Pradhan courtiers of Kathmandu were promised lucrative position in the new Kingdom in lieu for their help in killing the beleaguered king. The king realized that he had enemies galore and fled to the neighboring Bhaktapur leaving the throne empty in Kathmandu. Upon easing his way to the throne of the Kathmandu, the very next day, he ordered the beheading of all of the Pradhan courtiers and their extended family.
Eleven days later (6 October 1768), he conquered Lalitpur. On 14 April 1769, he gained the town of Thimi and seven months later (17 November 1769), he took over Bhaktapur. In this way, the whole Kathmandu Valley came under the control of Prithvi Narayan Shah.
Unification of Nepal and establishment of a united Kingdom of Nepal
After his conquest of the Kathmandu Valley, Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered other smaller countries south of the valley to keep other smaller fiefdoms near his Gurkha state out of the influence and control of the British rule. After his kingdom spread out from north to south, he made Kantipur the capital of expanded country, and renamed it Nepal from its original name of Gorkha. After this he turned his attention towards the east. The Sena kingdom of Choudandi was conquered by 1773 A.D. and Vijaypur, another Sena kingdom, was annexed shortly thereafter. Prithvi Narayan Shah formally established Nepal as a country and the Kingdom of Nepal was officially born in 1769 AD.
Implications of unification
Had Prithvi Narayan Shah not established the Kingdom of Nepal, it is likely that the smaller and weaker nation states would have come under the control of the British Empire, whose influence was increasing in India at the time. If the British Indian army had not been stopped and defeated at Makawanpurgadhi-Sindhuligadhi, Nepal would not have been born as a country, and the Nepalese would not be known as an independent political entity, a people separate from India. The majority of credit for preventing these outcomes goes to Prithvi Narayan Shah. Some historians of questionable intent calls Prithivi Narayan Shah as the Great in Nepal. However, this history written by the conquered leaves out the critical detail; that the conquered people thought and still think that this event was nothing but a glorified version of internal colonization practiced by Shah dynasty over almost all of the Nepalese people.
Bhimsen Thapa served as Nepal's first Prime Minister for 31 years, under 6 different Nepali kings. Having befriended Crown Prince Rana Bahadur Shah at an early age, Thapa served as his personal secretary in India when he became king, before then being appointed Prime Minister. Bhimsen Thapa campaigned for South Asian countries to unite in opposition to the increasingly powerful and aggressive British East India Company, but he was unable to garner much support from other countries. This lack of unity directly affected the outcome of the Anglo-Gorkha war of 1814-16 which can be regarded as the starting point of the history of the British Gurkhas. Thapa is regarded as a national heroin Nepal: as a wise and fair leader who introduced a number of impoprtant social and military reforms.
Bhimsen Thapa was born in the small district of Gorkha. His father, Major Amar Singh Thapa (not to be confused with the commander of Gorkhali forces in the Gurkha War), was a faithful soldier of King Prithvi Narayan Shah. At the age of 11, Bhimsen Thapa came into contact with the Nepalese Royal Palace when his bratabandha ceremony was held together with the Crown Prince Rana Bahadur's. Thapa and the Crown Prince soon developed a friendship with Thapa eventually serving as King Rana Bahadur's personal secretary at the age of 22 in Varanasi, India.
Developments made by Bhimsen Thapa
During his stay in Varanasi, he studied the expansion and true intentions of the British East India Company in South Asia. He became the first Prime Minister of Nepal upon his (and the king's) return to the country when the returning monarch was assassinated by his own half brother; which general Bhimsen Thapa took as a chance to wipe out his friends.
Thapa served for 31 years under six kings. He appealed all South Asian states to fight collectively against the British and declared war on the English East India Company in 1816 as the commander of the army and as the Prime Minister. However of the ill preparation, long standing internal unification campaign, lack of foreign assistance as well as military confrontation with China, Nepal lost the war which precipitated his downfall. However he continued to rule for another 13 years whence he brought about several military, judicial, social and economic reforms in Nepal. The army was modernized in European style, several ill social practices were abolished, unused land were brought under cultivation and the administration was updated. The Dharahara and Sundhara of Kathmandu, the Bagdurbar and Teku bridge were constructed by him.
Causes of Bhimsen Thapa's Death
Eventually, he was forced to retire by his opponents, the Pandeys and the Basnets, other Gorkha favorites, on conspiracy charges. Later, he was forced to kill himself.
King Rana Bahadur Shah said of him "If I die the nation will not die, but if Bhimsen Thapa dies the nation will collapse". Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab said of him "If I had Bhimsen on my service, I know what many things I would have achieved". Karl Marx praised Bhimsen Thapa by referring him the only man in Asia who braved to protest submission to the colonists.
Prime Minister Bhimsen Thapa was the maternal Grandfather of Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana who was driven to kill the Pandeys and the Basnets to avenge Bhimsen Thapa. This brought the chapter of Nepalese history known as the Ranas. It is believed that he died of the grief that was told to him that his wife would be walked through the streets naked.
King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev
King Birendra was one of the best king of Nepal. He is regarded as the most friendly King Nepalese ever had, he died in a Royal Palace Massacre which also killed 9 of his family members including his wife, his son Dipendra - then the would be King of Nepal. Nepalese media as well as foreign news media such as BBC and CNN conclude that "Dipendra shot himself after shooting his entire family because of his parents's dislike of his choice of bride" but majority of Nepalese view Royal Massacre as the number one unsolved mystery of Nepal. King Birendra Favored Parliamentary Multi-Party Democracy. King Birendra's warm and friendly personality lives in the hearts of many Nepalese.
Birendra was born at the Narayanhity Royal Palace in Kathmandu as the eldest son of the then Crown Prince Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev and his wife Crown Princess Indra Rajya Laxmi.
Birendra was the first Nepalese monarch to receive a formal education. He spent eight years studying at St Joseph's College, a Jesuit school in Darjeeling, India. On 13 March 1955 his grandfather King Tribhuvan died and his father succeeded to the Nepalese throne. With his father's ascension Birendra became the Crown Prince of Nepal.
In 1959 Birendra enrolled at Eton College in the United Kingdom. After studying at Eton until 1964 he returned to Nepal where he began to explore the country by travelling incognito to remote parts of the country where he lived on whatever was available in the villages and monasteries. He later completed his education by spending some time at the University of Tokyo before studying political theory at Harvard University from 1967 to 1968. Late King Birendra enjoyed to travel in his youth and went on trips to Canada, Latin America, Africa and a number of Asian countries. He was also an art collector and supporter of Nepalese crafts people and artists. He also learnt to fly helicopters.
Birendra was married to Aishwarya Rajya Laxmi Devi Rana from the Rana family on 27 February 1970. The wedding which was billed as one of the most lavish Hindu nuptial ceremonies in history cost $9.5 million to stage. Birendra and Aishwaraya had three children and one half daughter Princess Teesha.
Prince Dipendra (27 June 1971 – 4 June 2001)
Princess Shruti (15 October 1976 – 1 June 2001)
Prince Nirajan (6 November 1977–1 June 2001)
Birendra succeeded to the throne on 31 January 1972 on the death of his father. On his ascension he was effectively an absolute monarch as he inherited a country where political parties were banned and he ruled through a system of local and regional councils known as panchayats. Birendra resented the absolute monarch tag maintaining that he presided over a democracy in which representatives to the assembly were indirectly elected and saying that his poor and backward country could not afford a democracy based on party politics and that it needed firm and decisive government. His first trips abroad as king were to India in October 1973 and China two months later as he believed that Nepal, sandwiched between the two Asian powers, should have good relations with both.
In an attempt to maintain the panchayat system of government prominent leaders of the Nepali Congress Party were arrested. Because of the growing pro democracy movement Birendra announced that a referendum to decide between a non-party and a multi-party system would be held. The referendum was held in May 1980 with the non-party system winning by a margin of 55% to 45%. During the 1980s the restraints that had been imposed on political organisations were starting to ease and liberal student-led groups were starting to appear demanding constitutional change in Nepal. He was made a British Field Marshal in 1980.
In 1990 a series of strikes and pro-democracy riots broke out in Nepal. Because of the rioting Birendra agreed to become a constitutional monarch. He appointed an independent Constitution Recommendation Commission to represent the main opposition factions and to prepare a new constitution to accommodate their demands for political reform. The commission presented him with the draft of the proposed constitution on 10 September 1990. The new constitution would make Birendra head of state of a constitutional monarchy with a system of multiparty democracy. The draft constitution was approved by the Prime Minister K.P. Bhattarai and his cabinet and so on 9 November 1990 Birendra promulgated the new constitution transforming Nepal into a constitutional monarchy.
However, the quarrels between various political parties and numerous social problems led to the Nepalese Civil War, a conflict between Maoist rebels and government forces, which lasted from 1996 until 2006.
Nepal's stability was threatened even more when Birendra and most of his family (including Queen Aiswarya) were massacred at a royal dinner on 1 June 2001. Published reports from eyewitnesses and the results of an investigation carried by a two-man committee made up of the Chief of the Supreme Court Keshav Prasad Upadhaya and the speaker of the House of Representatives Taranath Ranabhat, confirmed his eldest son and heir, Dipendra, was the gunman. Since almost all of the Royal family members were killed in the massacre except Gyanendra Shah (Former King and kid-brother of the then King Birendra), general public believes that former King Gyanendra is the mastermind behind the plot. However detailed investigation is rather impossible as "Tribhuvan Sadan"(a building where the massacre occurred)has been demolished by the Gyanendra regime. Some political faction of Nepal has blamed foreign elements as being involved in the massacre of the Royal family of Nepal. Dipendra was proclaimed king but died a few days later of self-inflicted gunshot wounds during the massacre. Birendra's brother, Gyanendra, then became King.
Bisheshwor Prasad Koirala (1914-1982)
Bisheshwor was the first Prime minister of Nepal. He was the leader of the First political party - the Nepali Congress. He was a charismatic political leader of Nepal
His hobbies were politics and literature. He fought for Nepalese freedom and democracy. In Short, his name is written as BP Koirala. Many of today's Nepali leaders follow BP Koirala's principals of leadership and patriotism.
Many buildings and places in Nepal are named after him such as BP Koirala College, BP Marg.
"Koirala still has a following in Nepal and his presence in the country even in jail is a factor that the King can't ignore."
No radio ends its daily programming without a song by Narayan Gopal. He is the "Sor Samrat" in Nepali, meaning "the King of vocal" / "The King of Singers". Narayan Gopal earned many awards including Radio Nepal's Sarbottam Awards, Ratna Recording Award, Lions Awards and Jagadamba Award. His songs have heart-touching lyrics like the one "Jharay ko pat jai bhayo.. Ujhad Mero Jindaki.." meaning "Like a dead leaf fallen from a tree, deserted my life like the leaf", a typical song for someone who is dumped by his girl friend! and equally the song for lovers and dancers the "Mohani Laglahi Gaulayko Bolilay" from the motion picture "Chino". Mr. Gopal's favorite song writer was Kali Prasad Rijal. Think of a tragic and sad songs of a broken-heart or think about the most famous Nepali singer of all time, That's him who left this earth a while back but never the hearts of Nepalese!
Ganesh Man Singh (1915 - 1997)
Ganesh man was the leader of Nepali Congress Party. He was the center of the popular movement of 1990 that restored multi-party democracy in Nepal.
Ganeshman did not believe in the titles such Prime Minister or Ministries, in fact he was once asked by Nepali King to take upon the title "Prime Minister", but he declined. Ganesh Man did his share of contributions to the nation building not as a political figure but as an ordinary Nepali. He is called the "Father of Democracy" in Nepal.
Siddhi Charan Shrestha
Known as the famous poet Yuga Kabi Siddhi Charan Shrestha. Spend 18 years in jail in times of Ranas (Royal Regimes). But nothing could him, his revolutionary poetries gained momentum and respect.
Pasang Lhamu Sherpa(1961 to 1993)
In 1991, she became the first Nepali women to conquer the highest Mountain on Earth - Mount Everest. Deadly storm took her life as she was returning from the submit in 1993. She remains the number one Nepali Female Icon. She is often called the "Goddess of Courage and Determination" and she lives in Nepal forever.
Laxmi Prasad Devkota (1909 - 1959)
Nepal's Greatest Poet ever born in Nepal. His work "Muna-Madan" is the most read Nepali book of all time. His lyrics "Kun Mandir ma janchau yatri, Kun samagri puja garne" (In which temple are you going, and what are you offering to the God, hey pilgrims.) remains the best Nepali lyrics of all time.
In 1953, Tenzing Norgay along with this friend Sir Edmund Hillary, become the first to stood atop Everest, making Nepal known to the world and climbers. view photos. Tenzing died at the age of 71, on May 9th, 1986.
Amar Singh Thapa
Commender in Chief of Nepal during Anglo-Nepalese War time. Fought and won over British India with Gurkha Army's, stones and indigenous weapons like knives, logs and stones.
Bhanu Bhakta Acharya (1848-1868)
Many Nepali wrote poetry that was too heavily Sanskritized before him. Bhanubhakta was definitely "the" writer who gained the acceptance of a wide range of people and his creations played a key role in popularizing the written form of the Khas language.
Bhanubhakta was a young boy from a wealthy family and was leading an unremarkable life until he met a grass cutter who wanted to give something to society so that he could be remembered after death too. After listening to the grass cutter Bhanubhakta felt ashamed of himself. He is the second biggest poet after Laxmi Parsad Devkota. His biggest creation is translation of great epic 'Ramayana' from Sanskrit to Nepali.
He died in 1868 as a simple man who did not know he would be among the most revered poets of Nepal. Perhaps, it is only he and Laxmi Prasad Devkota that have become literary gods in this country. The only difference between the two is that Devkota's works continue to enjoy as much celebrity as the great poet himself, while Bhanubhakta's fame tends to overshadow his writings.
However, his creation was not published and he was to die without receiving credit for his contribution. It was in 1887 that Moti Ram Bhatta found his manuscript and printed it in Benaras, India.
Araniko was born in Patan, Nepal. Not long after he showed his pagoda style architecture skills in Nepal,he moved to China where he demonstrated his architecture skills, he died at the age of 61 in 1305. His legacy lives on; Kathmandu to Khodahari, a highway that links Nepal to China, is dedicated to his name, Arniko Rajmarg (Highway), and the oldest Nepal China Society in his name, the Nepal Arniko Society.